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The Third Punic War

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

Whether it was fighting  in a civil war or fighting to expand/defend the Kingdom, Republic, or Empire, Rome rarely rested on its laurels. Previously we’ve brought you Rome: The Punic Wars – The First Punic WarRome: The Punic Wars – The Second Punic War BeginsRome: The Punic Wars – The Second Punic War Rages On, and Rome: The Punic Wars – The Conclusion of the Second Punic War.

Thanks to Jonah Woolley, today the war with Carthage rages on once more as we view The Third Punic War!

Roman Naval Attack on Carthage during The Third Punic War.

The Third Punic War, or Tertium Bellum Punicum, (149–146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage and the Roman Republic. The Punic Wars were named because of the Roman name for Carthaginians (Punici).

This war was a much smaller engagement than the 2 previous Punic Wars and focused on Tunisia, mainly on the Siege of Carthage. The siege ultimately resulted in the complete destruction of the city.

Upon the fall of Carthage, their was the annexation of all remaining Carthaginian territory by Rome followed by the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population. The Third Punic War ended Carthage’s independent existence.

We hope you enjoyed the concluding act of the Punic Wars and look forward to you joining us again. Be sure to check us out each day for our goal is to make Roman history come alive.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

Central Zone of the Town of Angra do Heroismo in the Azores

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

It’s time to take a look at another UNESCO World Heritage Site. Last week we were in Belgium as we head to  to check out the La Grand-Place.

It’s been awhile, but today we’re traveling back to Portugal as we explore Central Zone of the Town of Angra do Heroismo in the Azores!

Situated on one of the islands in the Azores archipelago, this was an obligatory port of call from the 15th Century until the advent of the steamship in the 19th Century. The 400-year-old San Sebastião and San João Baptista fortifications are unique examples of military architecture.

Damaged by an earthquake in 1980, Angra is now being restored.

How This Relates to Rome:

Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC. The Carthaginians, Rome’s adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies. During the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula was annexed to the Res Publica Romana (Roman Republic).

Roman Legions battling in Lusitania.

The Roman conquest of what is now part of Portugal took almost 200 years and took many lives of young soldiers and the lives of those who were sentenced to the slavery mines, when not sold as slaves to other parts of the Imperium Rōmānum (Roman Empire). It suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when the Lusitanians and other native tribes, under the leadership of Viriathus, wrested control of all of western Iberia.

Rome sent numerous Legions and its best Generals to Lusitania to quell the rebellion, but to no avail since the Lusitanians kept conquering territory. The Roman leaders changed their strategy and bribed Viriathus’s allies to kill him.

In 139 BC, Viriathus was assassinated, and Tautalus became leader. Rome installed a colonial regime, and the complete Romanization of Lusitania only took place in the Visigothic era.

In 27 BC, Lusitania gained the status of Roman province. Later, a northern province of Lusitania was formed, known as Gallaecia, with capital in Bracara Augusta (today’s Braga).

Thanks for taking the tour with us today. We hope you’re inspired to take further adventures within the Roman Empire.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

Rome: The Punic Wars – The Conclusion of the Second Punic War

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

Whether it was fighting  in a civil war or fighting to expand/defend the Kingdom, Republic, or Empire, Rome rarely rested on its laurels. Previously we’ve brought you Rome: The Punic Wars – The First Punic WarRome: The Punic Wars – The Second Punic War Begins, and Rome: The Punic Wars – The Second Punic War Rages On.

Thanks to Extra Credits, today the war rages on as we conclude our viewing of The Second Punic War!

Carthaginian war elephants engage Roman infantry at the Battle of Zama (202 BC).

In Hispania, a young Roman commander, Publius Cornelius Scipio (later to be given the agnomen Africanus because of his feats during this war), eventually defeated the larger but divided Carthaginian forces under Hasdrubal and 2 other Carthaginian generals. Abandoning Hispania, Hasdrubal moved to bring his mercenary army into Italy to reinforce Hannibal, but never made it and was defeated by Roman forces near the Alps.

Carthage lost Hispania forever, and Rome firmly established her power there over large areas. Rome imposed a war indemnity of 10,000 talents (300 tonnes/660,000 pounds), limited the Carthaginian navy to 10 ships (to ward off pirates), and forbade Carthage from raising an army without Roman permission.

The Second Punic War was brought to a conclusion on the plains of Zama.

The Numidians took the opportunity to capture and plunder Carthaginian territory. Half a century later, when Carthage raised an army to defend itself from these incursions, Rome destroyed her in the Third Punic War (149–146 BC).

By her victory, Rome had taken a key step towards what ultimately became her domination of the Mediterranean world. But that wouldn’t be it for Rome.

Thanks for joining our adventure today. Be sure to stop by again soon to check out The Third Punic War, and other adventures we may have.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

La Grand-Place, Brussels

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

It’s time to take a look at another UNESCO World Heritage Site. Last week we were in Classical Anatolia (or modern Turkey) as we head to  to check out the Archaeological Site of Ani.

It’s been awhile, but today we’re traveling back into Belgium as we explore La Grand-Place!

Around a cobbled rectangular market square, La Grand-Place in Brussels, the earliest written reference to which dates back to the 12th Century, features buildings emblematic of municipal and ducal powers, and the old houses of corporations. An architectural jewel, it stands as an exceptional and highly successful example of an eclectic blending of architectural and artistic styles of Western culture, which illustrates the vitality of this important political and commercial center.

The Grand-Place testifies in particular to the success of Brussels, mercantile city of Northern Europe that, at the height of its prosperity, rose from the terrible bombardment inflicted by the troops of Louis XIV in 1695. Destroyed in 3 days, the heart of the medieval city underwent a rebuilding campaign conducted under the supervision of the City Magistrate, which was spectacular not only by the speed of its implementation, but also by its ornamental wealth and architectural coherence.

Today the Grand-Place remains the faithful reflection of the square destroyed by the French artillery. It testifies to the symbolic intentions of the power and pride of the Brussels bourgeois who chose to restore their city to its former glory rather than rebuild in a contemporary style, a trend commonly observed elsewhere.

A pinnacle of Brabant Gothic, the Hôtel de Ville (City Hall), accentuated by its bell tower, is the most famous landmark of the Grand-Place. The King’s House has been occupied for decades by the City Museum.

Each house has a name and specific attributes, heightened with gold, reminiscent of the status of its occupants. It is interesting to note that this is a rare example of a square without a church or any other place of worship, which emphasizes its mercantile and administrative nature.

How This Relates to Rome:

During Antiquity, the region now known as Brussels was already home to Roman occupation, as attested by archaeological evidence discovered near the center. The origin of the settlement that was to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus‘ construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around AD 580.

Provincia Belgica within the Roman Empire (22 BC–5th Century).

The name Belgium is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples.

Thanks for taking the tour with us today. We hope you’re inspired to take further adventures within the Roman Empire.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

History Channel’s Documentary: History of The Byzantine Empire

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

Every now and again, it’s nice to just kick up your heels and watch something special. Give yourself a break.

Today we help make that happen, and you’ll learn something, as we present the History Channel documentary History of the Byzantine Empire!

Territorial development of the Byzantine Empire, AD 330–1453 (click image to view expansion).

This history of the Byzantine Empire covers the history of the Eastern Roman Empire from late antiquity until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD. Several events from the 4th to 6th Centuries mark the transitional period during which the Roman Empire’s east and west divided.

In AD 285, the Emperor Diocletian (r. 284–305) partitioned the Roman Empire‘s administration into eastern and western halves. Between AD 324 and 330, Constantine I (r. 306–337) transferred the main capital from Rome to Byzantium, later known as Constantinople (City of Constantine) and Nova Roma (New Rome).

Under Theodosius I (r. 379–395), Christianity became the Empire’s official state religion and others such as Roman polytheism were proscribed. And finally, under the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), the Empire’s military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin.

Thus, although it continued the Roman state and maintained Roman state traditions, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from Ancient Rome insofar as it was oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterized by Orthodox Christianity rather than Roman polytheism.

We hope you enjoyed today’s travel and look forward to having you join us again soon. Please be sure to check us out on Facebook and Twitter since we always have new things going on.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

Rome: The Punic Wars – The Second Punic War Rages On

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

Whether it was fighting  in a civil war or fighting to expand/defend the Kingdom, Republic, or Empire, Rome rarely rested on its laurels. Previously we’ve brought you Rome: The Punic Wars – The First Punic War and Rome: The Punic Wars – The Second Punic War Begins.

Thanks to Extra Credits, today the war rages on as we continue to view The Second Punic War!

Route of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during Second Punic War.

While fighting Hannibal in Italy, Hispania, and Sicily, Rome simultaneously fought against Macedon in the First Macedonian War. Eventually, the war was taken to Africa, where Carthage was defeated at the Battle of Zama (201 BC) by Scipio Africanus.

The Exercitus Romanus (Roman Army) under Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus intentionally deprived Hannibal of open battle in Italy for the rest of the war, while making it difficult for Hannibal to forage for supplies. Nevertheless, Rome was also incapable of bringing the conflict in the Italian theatre to a decisive close.

Roman Legions during the Second Punic War.

Not only did the Legiones Romanae (Roman Legions) contend with Hannibal in Italy and with Hannibal’s brother Hasdrubal in Hispania, but Rome had embroiled itself in yet another foreign war, the first of its Macedonian wars against Carthage’s ally Philip V, at the same time.

We hope you enjoyed today’s encounter and look forward to having you join us again soon. Make sure to stop by again since we will be concluding the Second Punic War.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

Archaeological Site of Ani

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

It’s time to take a look at another UNESCO World Heritage Site. Last week we were in the Switzerland to uncover the Swiss Alps Jungfrau-Aletsch.

Today we’re traveling back into Classical Anatolia (or modern Turkey) as we check out the Archaeological Site of Ani!

Ani (known in Latin as Abnicum) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey‘s province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia. Ani stood on various trade routes and its many religious buildings, palaces, and fortifications were amongst the most technically and artistically advanced structures in the world.

This site is located on a secluded plateau of northeast Turkey overlooking a ravine that forms a natural border with Armenia. This medieval city combines residential, religious and military structures, characteristic of a medieval urbanism built up over the centuries by Christian and then Muslim dynasties.

The city flourished in the 10th and 11th Centuries AD when it became the capital of the medieval Armenian kingdom of the Bagratides and profited from control of one branch of the Silk Road. Later, under Byzantine, Seljuk and Georgian sovereignty, it maintained its status as an important crossroads for merchant caravans.

The Mongol invasion and a devastating earthquake in 1319 marked the beginning of the city’s decline. The site presents a comprehensive overview of the evolution of medieval architecture through examples of almost all the different architectural innovations of the region between the 7th and 13th Centuries AD.

How This Relates to Rome:

The Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD. Its history is divided into successive reigns by 3 royal dynasties: Orontid (321 BC–200 BC), Artaxiad (189 BC–12 AD) and Arsacid (52–428).

Roman-Parthian Wars Campaign Map (AD 58-60).

During the Roman–Parthian Wars, the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia was founded when Tiridates I, a member of the Parthian Arsacid dynasty, was proclaimed King of Armenia in AD 52. Throughout most of its history during this period, Armenia was heavily contested between Rome and Parthia, and the Armenian nobility was divided among pro-Roman, pro-Parthian or neutrals.

Statue of Trajan (2nd Century AD) from Ostia Antica.

From AD 114 to 118, Armenia briefly became a province of the Roman Empire under Emperor Trajan. The Kingdom of Armenia often served as a client state or vassal at the frontier of the two large empires and their successors, the Byzantine and Sassanid empires. In 301, Tiridates III proclaimed Christianity as the state religion of Armenia, making the Armenian kingdom the first state to embrace Christianity officially.

During the Byzantine–Sasanian wars, Armenia was ultimately partitioned into Byzantine Armenia in 387 and Persian Armenia in 428.

Thanks for taking the tour with us today. We hope you’re inspired to take further adventures within the Roman Empire.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

Rome: The Punic Wars – The Second Punic War Begins

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

Whether it was fighting  in a civil war or fighting to expand/defend the Kingdom, Republic, or Empire, Rome rarely rested on its laurels. Last week we brought you Rome: The Punic Wars – The First Punic War.

Thanks to Extra Credits, today we carry on as we view the start of The Second Punic War!

Map showing Rome and Carthage at the start of the Second Punic War and the theatre of the Punic Wars (circa 218 BC).

According to Polybius, after The First Punic War there had been several trade agreements between Rome and Carthage, even a mutual alliance against king Pyrrhus of Epirus. When Rome and Carthage made peace in 241 BC, Rome secured the release of all 8,000 prisoners of war without ransom and, furthermore, received a considerable amount of silver as a war indemnity.

Legislative Assembly in the Roman Republic

However, Carthage refused to deliver to Rome the Roman deserters serving among their troops. A first issue for dispute was that the initial treaty, agreed upon by Hamilcar Barca and the Roman commander in Sicily, had a clause stipulating that the Roman Popular Assembly had to accept the treaty in order for it to be valid.

The Assembly not only rejected the treaty, but it also increased the indemnity Carthage had to pay. War was coming!

The Second Punic War (218 BC – 201 BC) is most remembered for the Carthaginian Hannibal‘s crossing of the Alps. His army invaded Italy from the north and resoundingly defeated the Exercitus Romanus (Roman Army) in several battles, but never achieved the ultimate goal of causing a political break between Rome and its allies.

Hannibal in Italy (on war elephants) by Jacopo Ripanda, ca. 1510 (Capitoline Museums, Rome).

Thanks for stopping by today, we hope you enjoyed the adventure. Be sure to come back soon for the Second Punic War marches on.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

Swiss Alps Jungfrau-Aletsch

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

It’s time to take a look at another UNESCO World Heritage Site. Last week we were in the Tunisia to uncover the Amphitheatre of El Jem.

Today we’re traveling back into Europe as we head to Switzerland to check out the Swiss Alps Jungfrau-Aletsch!

The extension of the natural World Heritage property of Jungfrau – Aletsch – Bietschhorn (first inscribed in 2001), expands the site to the east and west, bringing its surface area up to 203,615 acres (up from 133,190). The site provides an outstanding example of the formation of the High Alps, including the most glaciated part of the mountain range and the largest glacier in Eurasia.

 

It features a wide diversity of ecosystems, including successional stages due particularly to the retreat of glaciers resulting from climate change. The site is of outstanding universal value both for its beauty and for the wealth of information it contains about the formation of mountains and glaciers, as well as ongoing climate change.

It is also invaluable in terms of the ecological and biological processes it illustrates, notably through plan succession. Its impressive landscape has played an important role in European art, literature, mountaineering and alpine tourism.

How This Relates to Rome:

Julius Caesar and Divico parley after the battle at the Saône (Karl Jauslin, 19th Century).

One of the most important tribal groups in the Swiss region was the Helvetii. Steadily harassed by the Germanic tribes, in 58 BC the Helvetii decided to abandon the Swiss plateau and migrate to western Gallia, but Julius Caesar‘s forces pursued and defeated them at the Battle of Bibracte, in today’s eastern France, forcing the tribe to move back to its original homeland.

In 15 BC, Tiberius, who was destined to be the 2nd Roman Emperor and his brother, Drusus, conquered the Alps, integrating them into the Roman Empire. The area occupied by the Helvetii—the namesakes of the later Confoederatio Helvetica—first became part of Rome’s Gallia Belgica province and then of its Germania Superior province, while the eastern portion of modern Switzerland was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia.

Remains of the Roman Theatre of Vindonissa.

Sometime around the start of the Common Era, the Romans maintained a large Legionary Camp called Vindonissa. Now a ruin at the confluence of the Aare and Reuss rivers, the Roman camp was near the modern town of Windisch.

The 1st and 2nd Century AD were an age of prosperity for the population living on the Swiss plateau. Several towns, like Aventicum, Iulia Equestris and Augusta Raurica, reached a remarkable size. Also, hundreds of agricultural estates (Villae rusticae) were founded in the countryside.

The Roman Empire in AD 120 and Germania.

Around 260 AD, the fall of the Agri Decumates territory north of the Rhine transformed today’s Switzerland into a frontier land of the Empire. Repeated raids by the Alamanni tribes provoked the ruin of the Roman towns and economy, forcing the population to find shelter near Roman fortresses, like the Castrum Rauracense.

The Empire built another line of defense at the north border (the so-called Donau-Iller-Rhine-Limes), but at the end of the 4th Century the increased Germanic pressure forced the Romans to abandon the linear defense concept, and the Swiss plateau was finally open to the settlement of Germanic tribes.

Thanks for taking the tour with us today. We hope you’re inspired to take further adventures within the Roman Empire.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

Rome: The Punic Wars – The First Punic War

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

If you know anything about Ancient Rome then you know there was lots of fighting. Whether it was fighting  in a civil war or fighting to expand/defend the Kingdom, Republic, or Empire, Rome rarely rested on its laurels.

Thanks to Extra Credits, today we are going to view The First Punic War!

Western Mediterranean Sea in 264 BC. Rome is shown in red, Carthage in purple, and Syracuse in green.

The First Punic War (264–241 BC) was fought partly on land in Sicily and Africa, but was largely a naval war. It began as a local conflict in Sicily between Hiero II of Syracuse and the Mamertines of Messina.

Carthage spent the years following the war improving its finances and expanding its colonial empire in Hispania under the militaristic Barcid family. Rome’s attention was mostly concentrated on the Illyrian Wars.

A Carthaginian shekel, dated 237-227 BC, depicting the Punic god Melqart (equivalent of Hercules), most likely with the features of Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal Barca; on the reverse is a man riding a war elephant.

In 219 BC, Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar Barca, attacked Saguntum in Hispania, a city allied to Rome, starting the Second Punic War.

We hope you enjoyed today’s adventure and look forward to you coming back for more. Make sure to stop back soon because we shall be carrying on this video series.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!