Book 6; Thought 30

striveTake care that thou art not made into a Caesar, that thou art not dyed with this dye; for such things happen. Keep thyself then simple, good, pure, serious, free from affectation, a friend of justice, a worshipper of the gods, kind, affectionate, strenuous in all proper acts. Strive to continue to be such as philosophy wished to make thee. Reverence the gods, and help men. Short is life. There is only one fruit of this terrene life, a pious disposition and social acts. Do everything as a disciple of Antoninus. Remember his constancy in every act which was conformable to reason, and his evenness in all things, and his piety, and the serenity of his countenance, and his sweetness, and his disregard of empty fame, and his efforts to understand things; and how he would never let anything pass without having first most carefully examined it and clearly understood it; and how he bore with those who blamed him unjustly without blaming them in return; how he did nothing in a hurry; and how he listened not to calumnies, and how exact an examiner of manners and actions he was; and not given to reproach people, nor timid, nor suspicious, nor a sophist; and with how little he was satisfied, such as lodging, bed, dress, food, servants; and how laborious and patient; and how he was able on account of his sparing diet to hold out to the evening, not even requiring to relieve himself by any evacuations except at the usual hour; and his firmness and uniformity in his friendships; and how he tolerated freedom of speech in those who opposed his opinions; and the pleasure that he had when any man showed him anything better; and how religious he was without superstition. Imitate all this that thou mayest have as good a conscience, when thy last hour comes, as he had.

Tropaeum Alpium: Victory Monument of the Alps

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

Caesar Augustus is a huge focus for a lot of our articles since he was Rome’s 1st Emperor. Augustus set a lot of precedence with his accomplishments for the Imperium Rōmānum, and as the Pater Patriae he also showed Romans how they should conduct themselves personally.

From the many acts, achievements or architecture that Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus provided from his legacy we decided to explore a victory monument.

Today we are taking a closer look at the Tropaeum Alpium (Victory Monument of the Alps)!

Built by the Romans in 6 BC for their Emperor Augustus, this trophy served to celebrate his definitive victory over the ancient tribes who populated the Alps. The monument’s remains are in the commune of La Turbie (France), a few miles from the Principality of Monaco.

In this clip from Rick Steves‘ Racers, Rainbows, and Romans we get to see our favorite travel guide show us the Trophy of the Alps.

Here’s another view

One of the stones of the tower, which Pliny the Elder transcribed, contained the names of the tribes. It reads:

To the Emperor Caesar Augustus, son of the deified [Julius Caesar], Pontifex Maximus, hailed as Imperator for the 14th time, in his 17th year of tribunician power, the Senate and people of Rome [built this], in commemoration that, under his leadership and auspices, all the Alpine peoples, from the Upper Sea to the Lower Sea, were submitted to the Imperium of the Roman People. Conquered Alpine peoples:

· The four nations of the VINDELICI:

We will probably see more of France and of Augustus in the future. Please come check us out again if you found this piece worthwhile.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

Ancient Black Ops – The Spartans

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

Action, adventure and doing what’s right are all things that will grab our attention. Not all of history is filled with people or events like this, but those that do have withstood the test of time.

If you have not yet seen the movie 300, or even The 300 Spartans, then you will not be familiar with the Battle of Thermopylae. Do not fret for we are here to help.

We understand that this deals with Ancient Greece and not Rome, but we love it anyhow. If anything, the Romans were able to learn how to fight from those elite warriors of Sparta.

Today we present to you Ancient Black Ops – The Spartans!

For those not familiar with what 300 Spartans were able to do against the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of 3 days, we hope this helped. It is totally worth your while to check out 300, we have seen it more times than we can remember but we still love it.

We hope you enjoyed today’s visit and look forward to having you join us again.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

Book 6; Thought 26

Call_of_DutyIf any man should propose to thee the question, how the name Antoninus is written, wouldst thou with a straining of the voice utter each letter? What then if they grow angry, wilt thou be angry too? Wilt thou not go on with composure and number every letter? just so then in this life also remember that every duty is made up of certain parts. These it is thy duty to observe and without being disturbed or showing anger towards those who are angry with thee to go on thy way and finish that which is set before thee.

Naumachia Augusti: Built on the Tiber

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

Although not always original, Roman Engineering was famous for its accomplishments and the improvements made older concepts, ideas and inventions. Part of the reason the Romans were able to do so much was because of their consistency and documentation of their units of measurements.

In the spirit of the creativity of Ancient Rome, we present to you the Naumachia Augusti!nauma

The naumachia (naval combat) in the Ancient Roman word referred to both the staging of naval battles as mass entertainment and the basin or complex in which this took place.

The first known naumachia was given by Julius Caesar in Rome in 46 BC on occasion of his quadruple triumph. A basin was dug near the Tiber capable of holding actual biremes, triremes and quinqueremes, Caesar made 2000 combatants and 4000 rowers, all prisoners of war, fight.

Mars UltorIn 2 BC on the occasion of the inauguration of the Temple of Mars Ultor (Mars the Avenger), Augustus gave a naumachia based on Caesar’s model. This was the creation of the Naumachia Augusti.

Known mainly due to Res Gestae Divi Augusti, Augustus created a basin on the right bank of the Tiber where 3000 men, not counting rowers, fought in 30 vessels with rams and a number of smaller boats. Writing about his accomplishments was the Emperor Augustus could ensure his would be remembered and, in the case of his naumachia, he was right.

In his Res Gestae Divi Augusti, Augustus proclaimed:

I gave a show of naval battles to the people across the Tiber in which place is now the grove of the Caesars, with the site having been excavated 1800 feet in length, 1200 feet in width, in which thirty beaked ships, triremes or biremes, and many smaller ships fought among themselves; in which fleet around 3000 men, excluding the oarsmen, fought.

Res Gestae Divi Augusti
Res Gestae Divi Augusti

The aforementioned basin measured 1800 x 1200 pedes (Roman feet) which would be about 583 x 388 yards. Pliny the Elder continues sharing details of the Naumachia Augusti.

In his Natural History, Pliny tells us that there was a rectangular island in the center of the basin which was connected to the shore by a bridge. This was probably where the privileged spectators sat.

Pliny stated that the basin had to have a depth of about 5 feet, the minimum to allow ships to float, and therefore a capacity of about 7,062,933 cubic feet. The Aqua Alsietina, specially built by Augustus in 2 BC, could fill it in 15 days.

A waterway provided ships access to the naumachia from the Tiber, passed by a movable bridge (pons naumachiarius). Considering the size of the basin and those of a trireme, the 30 vessels used should not have much room for maneuver on the water.

Taking into consideration the size of the basin and the dimensions of a trireme (approximately 115 x 16 feet), the 30 vessels used would hardly be able to maneuver. Knowing that the crew of a Roman trireme was approximately 170 rowers and 50 to 60 soldiers, a simple calculation allows us to see that to achieve the number of 3000 men the vessels of Augustus’ fleet would have to have held more combatants than an actual fleet.La_naumaquia-Ulpiano_Checa

The spectacle thus focused less on the movement of the vessels than the actual presence of them in the artificial basin, and the hand-to-hand combat which developed. Around the Naumachia Augusti there was a wood dedicated to the grandchildren, Gaius and Lucius Caesar, and perhaps the gardens.

There are several theories as to the precise location of the site; the latest of which places it between Via Aurelia in the north and the church of San Francesco a Ripa in the southeast, in the loop of the Tiber. The republican viaduct discovered in the Via Aurelia near San Crisogono may also have served as a conduit for the

The basin did not last very long. During the reign of Augustus it was partly replaced by the Nemus Caesarum (Sacred Forest of the Caesars), later renamed “Forest of Gaius and Lucius” for the grandsons of Augustus. This vast area was probably built upon by the end of the 1st Century AD.

According to Sextus Julius Frontinus in De aquaeductu, the water supply for the Naumachia of Augustus was specially constructed, with the surplus used to water neighboring gardens in the Trans Tiberim. This was the Aqua Alsietina aqueduct, remains of which have been found on the slopes of Janiculum (the 8th Hill of Rome) below the monastery of San Cosimato.

The Naumachia Augusti was later used by Nero, Titus and Domitian but shortly thereafter it was abandoned. In the time of Severus Alexander only part still remained.

The Naumachia Augusti was just one of many social projects given to Rome on behalf of Augustus. As the Original Emperor, Augustus was simply beginning to put his personal stamp on not only Rome but the entire Empire.naumachiaWeb1

We hope you enjoyed today’s visit to Rome and discovering a venue not known to most in modern times. Our goal is to share and explore as much as possible with you each day, and with any luck we accomplished by today’s adventure.

Be sure to stop back again soon to see what we have in store for you. In all honesty, we don’t even know what’s coming.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!



  1. Coarelli, Aedes Fortis Fortunae, Naumachia Augusti, Castra Ravennatium: la Via Campana Portuensis e alcuni edifici nella Pianta Marmorea Severiana, Ostraka 1, 1992, 39-54.

Augustus. Res Gestae Divi Augusti. Cambridge University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-521-84152-8.

Augustus. Res Gestae Divi Augusti. Cambridge University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-521-84152-8.

Coleman, K. M. “Launching into History: Aquatic Displays in the Early Empire”. Journal of Roman Studies #83, 1993.

Haselberger, L. “Mapping Augustan Rome”. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series #50. Portsmouth (Rhode Island), 2002.

Healy, John F. Pliny the Elder: Natural History: A Selection. Penguin Classics, 2004. ISBN 978-0-14-044413-1.

Richardson, L. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Baltimore-Londres, 1992.

Taylor, R. “Torrent or Trickle ? The Aqua Alsietina, the Naumachia Augusti, and the Transtiberim”. American Journal of Archaeology #101, 1997.

Leptis Magna Arena (#35)

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

Today we continue examining the list of 52 Ancient Roman Monuments which had been claimed as a “must see” by Touropia Travel Experts. The last location we had checked out was #36 – the Temple of Augustus, Pula.

Today we’re going to someplace we’ve yet to visit, Armenia. We bring to you #35 – the Leptis Magna Arena!Circus_Leptis_Magna_Libya

Leptis Magna (Great Leptis) in modern-day Libya was a prominent city of the Roman Empire. The name Leptis Magna contrasts with Leptis Parva (Little Leptis) in modern-day Tunisia.

The ruins of Leptis Magna are located in Khoms, Libya, 81 mi east of Tripoli, on the coast where the Wadi Lebda meets the sea. The site is one of the most spectacular and unspoiled Roman ruins in the Mediterranean.

The city appears to have been founded by a group of local Berbers and Phoenicians sometime around 1000 BC. The town did not achieve prominence until Carthage became a major super power in the Mediterranean Sea in the 4th Century BC.Map

At the end of the Third Punic War in 146 BC Leptis Magna then became part of the Roman Republic. During the reign of Augustus, Leptis Magna was classified as a Civitas libera et immunis (free community) over which the governor had an absolute minimum of control.

Leptis Magna remained as such until the reign of the Roman Emperor Tiberius, when the city and the surrounding area were formally incorporated into the empire as part of the province of Africa. It soon became one of the leading cities of Roman Africa and a major trading post.

Leptis achieved its greatest prominence beginning in 193 AD, when a Berber native son, Lucius Septimius Severus, became Emperor. He favored his hometown above all other provincial cities, and the buildings and wealth he lavished on it made Leptis Magna the 3rd-most important city in Africa, rivaling Carthage and Alexandria.

Under Arab domination since 640 AD Leptis disappeared, and by the 10th Century the city was forgotten and fully covered by sand. Today, the site of Leptis Magna is the site of some of the most impressive ruins of the Roman period.

Leptis Magna ArenaIn the Imperial Era, amphitheatres became an integral part of the Roman urban landscape. As cities vied with each other for preeminence in civic buildings, amphitheatres became ever more monumental in scale and ornamentation. Imperial amphitheatres comfortably accommodated 40,000–60,000 spectators. They featured multi-storied, arcaded façades and were elaborately decorated with marble and stucco cladding, statues and reliefs, or even partially made of marble.

As the Empire grew, most of its amphitheatres remained concentrated in the Latin-speaking western half, while in the East spectacles were mostly staged in other venues such as theatres or stadia. A large number of modest arenas were built in Roman North Africa, where most of the architectural expertise was provided by the Roman military.

Spectacles involving animals, venationes, survived until the 6th Century, but became costlier and rarer.  After the end of venationes, the only remaining purpose of amphitheatres was to be the place of public executions and punishments.

After even this purpose dwindled away, many amphitheatres fell into disrepair and were gradually dismantled for building material, razed to make way for newer buildings, or vandalized. Others were transformed into fortifications or fortified settlements, such as at Leptis Magna.

The Roman amphitheater of Leptis Magna was capable of seating 16,000 spectators. Unlike most Roman amphitheaters, it is built below the ground.In Ground

There were reports that Leptis Magna was used as a cover for tanks and military vehicles by pro-Gaddafi forces during the 2011 Libyan civil war. When asked about the possibility of conducting an air-strike on the historic site, NATO refused to rule out the possibility of such an action saying that it had not been able to confirm the rebels’ report that weapons were being hidden at the location.

We hope you enjoyed today’s journey to the Asia Minor. We look forward to having you join us again.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!



Bullo, Silvia. Provincia Africa: le città e il territorio dalla caduta di Cartagine a Nerone. Editore L’Erma di Bretschneider. Roma,2002. ISBN 8882651681.

De Miro, Ernesto & Antonella Polito. Leptis Magna. L’Erma di Bretschneider, Rom 2005, ISBN 88-8265-309-9.

Floriani Squarciapino, Maria. Leptis Magna. Raggi, Basel 1966.

Mommsen, Theodore. The Provinces of the Roman Empire. Barnes & Noble Ed. New York, 2003.

Robin, Daniel. The Early Churches in North Africa (The Holy Seed). Tamarisk Publications. Chester, 1993. ISBN 978 0 9538565 3 4.

Talbert, RichardBarrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. ISBN 0-691-03169-X.

Tomlinson, Richard A. From Mycenae to Constantinople: the evolution of the ancient city. New York: Routledge, 1992. ISBN 0-203-72114-4.

Leges Iuliae: A Moral Code of Conduct

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

In the past we have covered many topics, from Places and Items of Interest to Religion / Mythology and everything in between. It’s time to explore something new, something we’ve not really gotten into before.

Today we bring to you a new topic, the Laws of the Land, as we present the Leges Iuliae!Lex_Iulia_de_maritandis_ordinibus_zur_Lex_Papia_Poppaea

A Lex Iulia is an Ancient Roman law that was introduced by any member of the Gens Iulia (or Julii). Most often “Julian Laws” refer to moral legislation introduced by Augustus in 23 BC, or to a law from the dictatorship of Julius Caesar.

Probably the best known of the laws under this name, aside from Augustus’ Laws on Marriage, is the Lex Iulia de Civitate Latinis Danda from 90 BC. It was introduced by the Consul Lucius Julius Caesar, and offered Roman citizenship to all citizens of Italian municipia who had not raised arms against Rome in the Bellum Sociale.

In 59 BC the Lex Iulia de Repetundis was introduced. This Law restricted the number of ‘gifts’ that a  Rector Provinciae could receive during his term in a provincia, and also ensured that Governors balanced their accounts before leaving a province.

Tables of HeracleaSets regulations known as the Lex Julia Municipalis came for the Italian municipalities in 45 BC. The Tabulae Heracleenses are a significant example of this defining the boundaries of lands belonging to various temples.

Under Augustus, the Leges Iuliae of 18–17 BC attempted to elevate the morals of the upper classes in Rome while also increasing their numbers. This 2-pronged approach began with the Lex Iulia de Maritandis Ordinibus to increase the population by encouraging marriage and having children. It was then followed up with the Lex Julia de Adulteriis that established adultery as both a private and public crime.

To encourage population expansion, the Leges Iuliae offered incentives to marriage and imposed disabilities upon the celibate. Marrying-age celibates and young widows who wouldn’t marry were debarred from receiving inheritances and from attending public games.

Augustus then instituted the “Law of the Three Sons” which held those in high regard who produced 3 male offspring. As with most pre-20th Century societies, Rome held male offspring (and those who produced them) in the highest of regards.Tablet

The year 18 BC also brought about the Lex Iulia de Ambitu, penalizing bribery when acquiring political offices, and the Lex Iulia de Maritandis Ordinibus, limiting marriage across social class boundaries. The latter of the pair was seen as an indirect foundation of concubinage and would later be regulated by Justinian.

In 17 BC, the Lex Iulia de Adulteriis Coercendis was created to punish adultery with banishment. The 2 guilty parties were sent to different islands (dummodo in diversas insulas relegentur), and part of their property was confiscated.

Roman law allowed fathers to kill their daughters and their partners in adultery. Husbands could kill the partners under certain circumstances and were required to divorce adulterous wives.

Augustus himself was obliged to invoke the law against his own daughter Julia and had her relegated to the island of Pandateria, and again against his niece Julia the YoungerJulia in Exile

It was stated that Augustus was stricter for his own relatives than the law actually required. This makes sense if you are trying to change the way things are done for people are more apt to take someone seriously who will punish his or her own family.

In 5 AD an inheritance tax, the Lex Iulia de vicesima hereditatum, was instituted. This was a 5% tax on testamentary inheritances, exempting close relatives.

To encourage and strengthen marriage, Augustus created the Lex Papia Poppaea in 9 AD. This was seen as an integral part of the Julian Laws for the Lex Papia Poppaea explicitly promoted offspring, within lawful marriage, thus also discriminating against celibacy.

Later updates were made to the Julian Laws by various Emperors. All changes though were based on, and frequently quote from, the actual text of Augustus’ laws.

In the 3rd Century AD Ulpian adjusted the Lex Iulia relating to marriage. Senators and their descendants were forbidden to marry freedwomen, actresses, or whose father or mother been actors; other freeborn persons were forbidden to marry a common prostitute, or a woman caught in adultery, or one condemned in a public lawsuit, or one who had followed the profession of the stage.

Under the rule of Emperor Justinian, in the 6th Century AD, the Lex Iulia on adultery was altered. Adultery now punished with death not only those who dishonor the marriage bed of another, but also those who indulge in unspeakable lust with males.

The same Lex Iulia also punished the offence of seduction, when a person, without the use of force, deflowers a virgin or seduces a respectable widow. The penalty imposed on such offenders was the confiscation of half their estate, if they are of respectable standing, or corporal punishment and banishment in the case of people of the lower orders.augustus_childcoin

If for no other reasons these laws were made to fit a particular need during a specific time, much like how modern laws are imposed today. The laws may seem over the top or silly as one looks at them from generations ahead, but the people making them were only human.

We hope you enjoyed today’s look into Rome’s legal system. With your feedback we may be inclined to explore more Laws of the Land.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!



Boatwright, M. The Romans: From Village to Empire: A History of Rome from Earliest Times to the End of the Western Empire. 2011.

Woolf, Greg. Ancient civilizations: the illustrated guide to belief, mythology, and art. Barnes & Noble, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4351-0121-0.

“The Julian marriage laws”. Retrieved 2010-11-29.

Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine: A Building for Every Need

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

Over the past week we’ve journeyed to Armenia to see the Temple of Augustus in Pula, explored the Three Castles, Defensive Wall and Ramparts of the Market-Town of Bellinzona in the Ukraine, and then witnessed the Domus Aurea: Rome’s Golden House. Since we finished in Roma, let’s stay a while.

Today we are going to check out Rome’s one-stop-shop for all your needs, the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine!3D

Sometimes known as the Basilica Nova (New Basilica) is an ancient building in the Forum Romanum. At the time of its completion, the basilica was the largest building in the Forum.Plan Rome - Basilica Nova

Construction began on the northern side of the Forum under the Emperor Maxentius in AD 308. It wasn’t until AD 312, after Constantine the Great defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, that construction was completed.

Remains of Constantine ColossusThe building rose close to the Templum Pacis and the Templum Veneris et Romae, whose reconstruction was part of Maxentius’ interventions. The building consisted of a central nave covered by 3 groin vaults suspended 128 ft above the floor on 4 large piers, ending in an apse at the western end containing the Colossus of Constantine (remnants of which are now in a courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori of the Musei Capitolini).Relics

The lateral forces of the groin vaults were held by flanking aisles measuring 75 x 56 ft. The aisles were spanned by 3 semi-circular barrel vaults perpendicular to the nave, and narrow arcades ran parallel to the nave beneath the barrel vaults. The nave itself measured 83 x 265 feet creating a floor roughly 21,528 square ft. The basilica made use of vast interior space with its emotional effect, just like the thermae did.

Running the length of the eastern face of the building was a projecting arcade. On the south face was a projecting (prostyle) porch with 4 columns (tetrastyle).Floor Plan

Similar to many basilicas at the time such as the Basilica Ulpia, the Basilica Nova featured a huge open space in the central nave.

Instead of having columns support the ceiling the entire building, like other basilicas, the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine was built using arches. This was a much more common appearance in therma than in basilicas.Inside

Another difference from traditional basilicas is the roof of the structure. While traditional basilicas were built with a flat roof, the Basilica Maxentius was built with a folded roof, decreasing the overall weight of the structure and decreasing the horizontal forces exerted on the outer arches.

The innovative and eye pleasing design of the Basilica Nova could not resist the forces of nature, however, as the south and central sections were destroyed by an earthquake in AD 847. The vault of the nave collapsed in AD 1349 from yet another earthquake.

The color of the building during its prime was white. On the outside wall of the basilica, facing onto the Via dei Fori Imperiali, are contemporary maps showing the various stages of the rise of the Roman Empire which were added during the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini. A map depicting Mussolini’s “New Roman Empire” was removed from the wall after the war.Reconstruction

The Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine is a marvel of Roman engineering work. It used the most advanced engineering techniques known including innovations taken from the Mercatus Traiani and the Thermae Diocletiani.

At the time of construction, it was the largest structure to be built. That in itself makes the Basilica Nova a unique building taking both aspects from Roman baths as well as typical Roman basilicas.

Of the 66-foot-high columns, only 1 of the 8 survived the 1349 earthquake. It was brought by Pope Paul V to Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore in AD 1614.

All that remains of the basilica today is the north aisle with its 3 concrete barrel vaults. The ceilings of the barrel vaults show advanced weight-saving structural skill with octagonal ceiling coffers.

BackIn Ancient Rome a basilica was a rectangular building with a large central open space, and often a raised apse at the far end from the entrance. Basilicas served a variety of functions, including a combination of a court-house, council chamber and meeting hall.

However, there might be numerous statues of the gods displayed in niches set into the walls. Under Constantine and his successors this type of building was chosen as the basis for the design of the larger places of Christian worship.

The likelihood of this theory was that the basilica form had fewer pagan associations than those of the designs of traditional Greco-Roman temples, and allowed large congregations.  As a result of the building programs of the Christian Roman Emperors the term basilica later became largely synonymous with a large church or cathedral.

A typical basilica in Ancient Rome would also have 2 rows of shops, along the walls facing each other. This allowed for a Roman Citizen to take care of his shopping, civic needs and worship altogether (no bathing here).

The wrestling events were held here during the 1960 Summer Olympic Games (countries under Communist control did really well). No longer the fabulous building it once was, the basilica now serves only to remind tourists of Rome’s majesty.basilica_of_maxentius_constantine

We hope you enjoyed today’s discovery and look forward to having you back again for future travels. Stop back again to see where, or what, we’ll be up to.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!



Fazio, Michael. Buildings across time: an introduction to world architecture. Boston, Mass.: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009. ISBN 007305304X.

Giavarini, Carlo. The Basilica of Maxentius: the Monument, its Materials , Construction, and Stability. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 2005.

Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History and Meaning. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993. ISBN 0-06-430158-3.

Seindal, René. “Basilica of Maxentius – the last and largest basilica in the Roman Forum”. 2003-08-06.

Stierlin, Henri. The Roman Empire: From the Etruscans to the Decline of the Roman EmpireTASCHEN, 2002. ISBN 3-8228-1778-3.

Weitzmann, KurtAge of spirituality: late antique and early Christian art, third to seventh century. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. ISBN 9780870991790.

Glory After the Fall: Images of Ruins in 18th- and 19th-Century British Art. The Huntington.