Category Archives: Legio Romanus

Top 10 Horrifying Facts Horrifying Facts about the Roman Legions

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

If you have made it this far, then it seems you love interesting facts or are simply curious about how “horrifying” things were.

As you are probably aware, the Exercitus Romanus (Roman Army) was divided into smaller units called Legiōnēs (Legions). The many Legiōnēs could then be dispersed to handle conflicts as needed.

Miniatures representing a 1st Century Roman Legion

Let’s replace “horrifying” with “cool” and check out the (in)famous Legions of Rome!

We hope you enjoyed today’s video. If you care to know more about the Legio Romanus click here.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

The Roman Navy: From Rivers to Oceans

Ahoy and welcome to Rome Across Europe!

Throughout our time here we have covered various battles and the expansion of Rome from city-state to Empire. During our travels, we have relied upon the Exercitus Romanus (Roman Army) to carry the load of Rome’s development and expansion.

Most recently we shared the prowess of Rome’s military might in The Roman Navy: Unsung Champion of the Ancient Seas. Now that we are familiar with what the Roman Navy actually was, it’s now time to explore its scale.

That is why today we are discovering the Roman Navy various Fleets and Ports of Call!

Roman bireme depicted in a relief from the Temple of Fortuna Primigenia in Praeneste (Palastrina), c. 120 BC (Museo Pio-Clementino in the Vatican Museums).

Upon destroying Carthage and subduing the Hellenistic kingdoms of the eastern Mediterranean, Rome went on to achieve complete mastery of the inland sea, which they called Mare Nostrum (Our Sea). On “Their Sea” the Romans would set up major ports at Portus Julius (Misenum, Southern Italy), Port of Ravenna (Ravenna, Northern Italy), Alexandria (Egypt), Leptis Magna (Roman Libya), Ostia Antica and Portus (Central Italy), and the Port of Mainz (Rhine River, Germania).

The 2 major Fleets (Ostia Antica and Portus) were stationed in Italy and acted as a central naval reserve, directly available to the Emperor. In the absence of any seafaring threat, their duties mostly involved patrolling and transporting.

These duties were not simply confined to the waters around Italy, but throughout the Mediterranean. There is epigraphic evidence for the presence of sailors of the 2 Praetorian Fleets at Piraeus and Syria.

Classis Misenensis Roman Quinquereme

The larger of the 2 Fleets was the Classis Misenensis, which was established in 27 BC and based at Portus Julius. Later its name was changed to Classis Praetoria Misenesis Pia Vindex to which detachments of the fleet served at tributary bases, such as Ostia, PuteoliCentumcellae and other harbors.

The smaller of the 2 Fleets was the Classis Ravennas, which was made in 27 BC and based at Ravenna. Later its classification was changed to Classis Praetoria Ravennatis Pia Vindex.

Replica of a trireme, the main ship operated by Classis Ravennas (Mainz, Germany).

The various Provincial Fleets were smaller than the Praetorian Fleets, composed mostly of lighter vessels. Nevertheless, it was these Provincials that saw action in full campaigns or raids on the fringe of the Empire.

The Classis Pannonica, another fluvial fleet controlling the Upper Danube from Castra Regina in Raetia (modern Regensburg) to Singidunum in Moesia (modern Belgrade). Its exact date of establishment is unknown, but some trace it to Augustus’ campaigns in Pannonia circa 35 BC.

River biremes and triremes of the Classis Pannonica on the Danube.

The Fleet was certainly in existence by 45 AD, for under the Flavian Dynasty it received the cognomen Flavia. Its main base was probably Taurunum (modern Zemun) at the confluence of the river Sava with the Danube.

The Classis Alexandrina, based in Alexandria, controlled the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Founded by Augustus around 30 BC, the Classis Alexandrina was most likely comprised of ships that fought at the Battle of Actium, and was manned mostly by Greeks of the Nile Delta.

Depiction of a typical Roman ship from the Classis Alexandrina.

Having supported Emperor Vespasian in the Civil War of AD 69, it was awarded of the cognomen Augusta. The fleet was responsible chiefly for the escort of the grain shipments to Rome (and later Constantinople), and also apparently operated the Nile river patrol.

Ship of the Classis Flavia Moesica.

The Classis Flavia Moesica was established sometime between 20 BC and 10 AD, and was based in Noviodunum. The honorific Flavia was awarded to this Fleet as it controlled the Lower Danube from the Iron Gates to the northwestern Black Sea as far as the Crimea.

The Classis Germanica was established in 12 BC by Drusus at Castra Vetera. It controlled the Rhine and was mainly a fluvial Fleet, although it also operated in the North Sea.

Replica of a ship from the Classis Germanica.

It is noteworthy that the Romans’ initial lack of experience with the tides of the ocean left Drusus’ Fleet stranded on the Zuiderzee. After around 30 AD, the Fleet moved its main base to the castrum of Alteburg, some 2.5 miles south of Colonia Agrippinensis (modern Cologne).

Later, the Classis Germanica granted the honorifics Augusta Pia Fidelis Domitiana following the suppression of the Revolt of Saturninus.

The Classis Britannica, established in 40 or 43 AD at Gesoriacum (Boulogne-sur-Mer). It participated in the Roman invasion of Britain and the subsequent campaigns in the island.

The Roman Fleet landing on the coast of Britain for the Emperor Claudius’ invasion, earning the title Classis Britannica.

The fleet was probably based at Rutupiae (Richborough) until 85 AD, when it was transferred to Dubris (Dover). Other bases were Portus Lemanis (Lympne) and Anderitum (Pevensey), while Gesoriacum on the Gallic coast likely remained active.

During the 2nd-3rd Centuries, the fleet was chiefly employed in transport of supplies and men across the English Channel. The Classis Britannica disappears (at least under that name) from the mid-3rd Century, and the sites occupied by it were soon incorporated into the Saxon Shore system.

The Classis Perinthia was established after the annexation of Thracia in 46 AD, and was based in Perinthus. Probably based on the indigenous navy, it operated in the Propontis and was united with the Classis Pontica at a later stage.

The Classis Pontica, founded in 64 AD from the Pontic royal fleet, was based in Trapezus. Although, on occasion, it was moved to Byzantium and Cyzicus.

This Fleet was used to guard the southern and eastern Black Sea, and the entrance of the Bosporus. According to the historian Josephus, in the latter half of the 1st Century, the Fleet numbered 40 warships and 3,000 men.

Ship from Vespasian’s Classis Syriaca.

The Classis Syriaca was probably established under Vespasian (69-79 AD), and based in Seleucia Pieria (hence the alternative name Classis Seleucena) in Syria. This Fleet controlled the Eastern Mediterranean and the Aegean Sea.

The Classis Mauretanica, based at Caesarea Mauretaniae (modern Cherchell), controlled the African coasts of the western Mediterranean sea. This fleet was established on a permanent basis after the raids by the Moors in the early 170s.

The Classis Nova Libyca, first mentioned in 180 AD, was most likely based at Ptolemais on the Cyrenaica.

The Classis Africana Commodiana Herculea was established by Commodus in 186 AD after the model of the Classis Alexandrina. Its creation was to help secure the grain shipments (annona) from North Africa to Italy.

Banner of the Legio X Fretensis

In addition, there is significant archaeological evidence for naval activity by certain Legions, which in all likelihood operated their own squadrons. Legio XXII Primigenia was active on the Upper Rhine and Main Rivers, while Legio X Fretensis patrolled the Jordan River and the Sea of Galilee, as several Legionary Squadrons were stationed on the Danube frontier.

The best source for the structure of the late Roman military is the Notitia Dignitatum, which matches the situation of the 390s for the Eastern Empire and the 420s for the Western Empire. Notable in the Notitia is the large number of smaller squadrons that have been created, most of these fluvial and of a local operational role.

The Classis Pannonica and the Classis Moesica were broken up into several smaller squadrons. There was the Classis Histrica which had authority of the frontier commanders (duces), with bases at Mursa in Pannonia SecundaClassis Florentia in Pannonia ValeriaClassis Arruntum in Pannonia Prima; Classis Viminacium in Moesia Prima; and Classis Aegetae in Dacia Ripensis.

Two-banked lburnians of the Danube fleets during Trajan’s Dacian Wars (Trajan’s Column, Rome).

Naval units were complemented by port garrisons and Marines (Muscularii), drawn from the Exercitus Romanus. In the Danube frontier these were:

In Pannonia Prima and Noricum Ripensis, Naval Detachments (Milites Liburnarii) of Legio XIV Gemina and Legio X Gemina at Carnuntum and Arrabonae, along with Legio II Italica at Ioviacum.

In Pannonia Secunda, Legio I Flavia Augusta (at Sirmium) and Legio II Flavia are listed under their Prefects.

In Moesia Secunda, 2 units of Sailors (Milites Nauclarii) were stationed at Appiaria and Altinum.

In Scythia Minor, Marines of Legio II Herculia were at Inplateypegiis along with Sailors at Flaviana.

Roman Marine units

In the West, and in particular in Gaul, several fluvial Fleets had been established. These came under the command of the Magister Peditum of the West, and were:

The Classis Anderetianorum which was based at Parisii (Paris) and operating in the Seine and Oise Rivers.

The Classis Ararica was based at Caballodunum (Chalon-sur-Saône) and operated in the Saône River.

Classis Barcariorum was composed of small vessels docked at Eburodunum (modern Yverdon-les-Bains) at Lake Neuchâtel.

The Classis Comensis, stationed at Lake Como, truly made the lake their own.

Painting of a ship from the Classis Misenatis.

The old Praetorian Fleets, the Classis Misenatis and the Classis Ravennatis are still listed, albeit with no distinction indicating any higher importance than the other fleets. The Praetorian surname is still attested until the early 4th Century, but absent from Vegetius or the Notitia.

The Classis Fluminis Rhodani was based at Arelate and operated in the Rhône River. It was complemented with a Marine Detachment (Milites Muscularii) based at Massalia.

The Classis Sambrica was based at Locus Quartensis (unknown location) operating on the Somme River and the Channel. It came under the command of the Dux Belgica Secunda.

The Classis Venetum, based at Aquileia, operated in the northern Adriatic Sea. This Fleet may have been established to ensure communications with the Imperial Capitals in the Po Valley (Ravenna and Milan) and with Dalmatia.

It is notable that, with the exception of the Praetorian Fleets (whose retention in the list does not necessarily signify an active status), the old fleets of the Principate are missing. The Classis Britannica vanishes under that name after the mid-3rd Century, but its remnants were later incorporated in the Saxon Shore system.

Barbarians crossing of the Rhine

By the time of the Notitia Dignitatum, the Classis Germanica had ceased to exist, most probably due to the collapse of the Limes Germanicus (Germanic Frontier) after the Crossing of the Rhine by the barbarians in winter 405-406 AD. The Mauretanian and African Fleets had been disbanded or taken over by the Vandals.

As far as the East is concerned, we know that the Classis Alexandrina and the Classis Seleucena continued to operate, and that around 400 AD the Classis Carpathia was detached from the Syrian Fleet and based at the Aegean island of Karpathos. A Fleet is known to have been stationed at Constantinople itself, but no further details are known about it.

We hope you enjoyed setting sail with the various Fleets of the Roman Navy. We wish you safe passage on future journeys, and look forward to having you back again soon.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

 

References:

Casson, Lionel. The Ancient Mariners: Seafarers and Sea Fighters of the Mediterranean in Ancient Times. Princeton University Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0-691-01477-7.

Casson, Lionel. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-8018-5130-0.

Cleere, Henry. “The Classis Britannica”CBA, 1977.

Connolly, Peter. Greece and Rome at War. Greenhill, 1998.

Gardiner, Robert. AGE OF THE GALLEY: Mediterranean Oared Vessels since pre-Classical Times. Conway Maritime Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-85177-955-3.

Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Fall of Carthage: The Punic Wars 265–146 BC. Cassell, 2000. ISBN 0-304-36642-0.

Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Complete Roman Army. Thames & Hudson Ltd., 2003. ISBN 0-500-05124-0.

Goldsworthy, Adrian. “A Roman Alexander: Pompey the Great“. In the name of Rome: The men who won the Roman Empire. Phoenix, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7538-1789-6.

Gruen, Erich S. The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome: Volume IIUniversity of California Press, 1984. ISBN 0-520-04569-6.

Lewis, Archibald Ross; Runyan, Timothy J. European Naval and Maritime History, 300-1500. Indiana University Press, 1985. ISBN 0-253-20573-5,

MacGeorge, Penny. “Appendix: Naval Power in the Fifth Century”. Late Roman WarlordsOxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-925244-2.

Meijer, Fik. A History of Seafaring in the Classical World. Routledge, 1986. ISBN 978-0-7099-3565-0.

Potter, David. “The Roman Army and Navy”. The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic. Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-521-00390-2.

Rodgers, William L. Naval Warfare Under Oars, 4th to 16th Centuries: A Study of Strategy, Tactics and Ship Design. Naval Institute Press, 1967. ISBN 978-0-87021-487-5.

Saddington, D.B. “Classes. The Evolution of the Roman Imperial Fleets”. A Companion to the Roman ArmyBlackwell Publishing Ltd., 2007. ISBN 978-1-4051-2153-8.

Starr, Chester G. The Roman Imperial Navy: 31 BC-AD 324 (2nd Edition). Cornell University Press, 1960.

Starr, Chester G. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. Oxford University Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-19-505667-9.

Treadgold, Warren T. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.

Warry, John. Warfare in the Classical World. Salamander Books Ltd., 2004. ISBN 0-8061-2794-5.

Webster, Graham; Elton, Hugh. The Roman Imperial Army of the First and Second Centuries AD. University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8061-3000-8.

Workman-Davies, Bradley. Corvus: A Review of the Design and Use of the Roman Boarding Bridge During the First Punic War 264 -241 BC. Lulu.com, 2006. ISBN 978-1-84728-882-0.

The Roman Fleet, Roman-Empire.net

The Roman Navy: Masters of the Mediterranean, HistoryNet.com

Port of Claudius, the museum of Roman merchant ships found in Fiumicino (Rome)

Warfare of Classical Antiquity: Republican Fleet Tactics (Roman Navy)

Ahoy and welcome to Rome Across Europe!

The Roman Fleet landing on the coast of Britain for the Emperor Claudius’ invasion, earning the title Classis Britannica.

Throughout our time here we have covered various battles and the expansion of Rome from city-state to Empire. During our travels, we have relied upon the Exercitus Romanus (Roman Army) to carry the load of Rome’s development and expansion.

The Romans were late to the naval game but soon dominated the Mediterranean. If you care to dive into more depth on Rome’s maritime force, check out The Roman Navy: Unsung Champion of the Ancient Seas.

Today THFE Productions helps us set sail and explore the weapons and tactics employed by the Roman Navy!

We appreciate THFE Productions for their hard work and efforts in creating this wonderful visual presentation. Gratias for stopping by and we hope you join us on further adventures.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

The Roman Navy: Unsung Champion of the Ancient Seas

Ahoy and welcome to Rome Across Europe!

Throughout our time here we have covered various battles and the expansion of Rome from city-state to Empire. During our travels, we have relied upon the Exercitus Romanus (Roman Army) to carry the load of Rome’s development and expansion.

Most recently we shared the prowess of Rome’s military might in Making It Happen: The Military of Ancient Rome – Part I & Part II. Although the men of the Roman Legions did a lot of the work, the burden was not theirs alone.

That is why today we are exploring the Roman Navy, the unsung champions of the ancient seas!

The Roman Navy (Classis) comprised the naval forces of the Ancient Roman state. The Navy was instrumental in the Roman conquest of the Mediterranean basin, but it never enjoyed the prestige of the Roman Legions.

Throughout their history, the Romans remained a primarily land-based people and relied partially on their more nautically inclined subjects, such as the Greeks and the Egyptians, to build and man their ships. Partly because of that, the Navy was never wholly embraced by the Roman state, and deemed somewhat “un-Roman”.

In Antiquity, navies and trading fleets did not have the logistical autonomy that modern ships and fleets possess. Unlike modern naval forces, the Roman Navy even at its height never existed as an autonomous service but operated as an addition to the Roman Army.

The Roman Empire at its farthest extent in AD 117. Note, however, that the Sea is called Mare Internum “Inner Sea” here.

During the course of the First Punic War, the Roman Navy was massively expanded and played a vital role in the Roman victory and the Roman Republic‘s eventual ascension to supremacy in the Mediterranean Sea. In the course of the first half of the 2nd Century BC, Rome went on to destroy Carthage and subdue the Hellenistic kingdoms of the eastern Mediterranean, achieving complete mastery of the inland sea, which they called Mare Nostrum.

The Roman Fleets were again prominent in the 1st Century BC in the wars against the pirates, and in the Civil Wars that brought down the Republic, whose campaigns ranged across the Mediterranean. In 31 BC, the great naval Battle of Actium ended the Civil Wars culminating in the final victory of Augustus and the establishment of the Roman Empire.

Drawing of Julius Caesar as he is held captive by Mediterranean Pirates.

During the Imperial period, the Mediterranean seemingly became a Rome’s peaceful lake. In the absence of a maritime enemy, the Navy was reduced mostly to patrol, anti-piracy and transport duties.

The Navy also manned and maintained craft on major frontier rivers such as the Rhine and the Danube for supplying the Army. On the fringes of the Empire, in new conquests or in defense against barbarian invasions, the Roman Fleets were still engaged in open warfare.

The decline of the Empire in the 3rd Century took a heavy toll on the Navy, which was reduced to a shadow of its former self, both in size and in combat ability. As successive waves of the Völkerwanderung crashed on the land frontiers of the battered Empire, the Navy could only play a secondary role.

In the early 5th Century, the Roman frontiers were breached, and barbarian kingdoms appeared on the shores of the western Mediterranean. The Vandal Kingdom even raised a navy of its own and raided the shores of the Mediterranean sacking Rome.

The Imperial Ensign (Basilikon Phlamoulon) with the tetragrammic cross, carried by Byzantine warships.

Diminished Roman fleets were incapable of offering any resistance. With the eventual collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the late 5th Century, the Navy of the surviving Eastern Roman Empire came to be known as the Byzantine Navy.

The generic Roman term for an oar-driven galley warship was navis longa (long ship), as opposed to the sail-driven navis oneraria (merchant vessel), or the navigia minora (minor craft) like the scapha. The Navy consisted of a wide variety of different classes of warships, from heavy polyremes to light raiding and scouting vessels.

Unlike the rich Hellenistic Successor kingdoms in the East however, the Romans did not rely on heavy warships, with quinqueremes, and to a lesser extent quadriremes and triremes providing the mainstay of the Roman Fleets from the Punic Wars to the end of the Civil Wars.

Roman Quadrireme

The heaviest vessel mentioned in Roman Fleets during this period was the hexareme, of which a few were used as flagships. Lighter vessels such as the liburnians and the hemiolia, both swift types invented by pirates, were also adopted as scouts and light transport vessels.

During the final confrontation between Octavius (before he became Augustus) and Mark Antony, the fleet of Octavius was composed of quinqueremes, together with some “sixes” and many triremes and liburnians, while Antony, who had the resources of Ptolemaic Egypt to draw upon, fielded a fleet also mostly composed of quinqueremes, but with a sizeable complement of heavier warships, ranging from “sixes” to “tens”.

Roman Liburna

Later historical tradition made much of the prevalence of lighter and swifter vessels in Octavius’s fleet. Fourth Century Roman writer Vegetius even explicitly ascribed Octavius’s victory to the liburnians.

This prominence of lighter craft in the historical narrative is perhaps best explained in light of subsequent developments. After Actium, the operational landscape had changed.

For the remainder of the Principate, no opponent existed to challenge Roman maritime control and no massed nautical confrontation was likely. The tasks at hand for the Roman Navy were now the policing of the Mediterranean waterways and the rivers along the Empire’s borders, suppression of piracy, and escort duties for the grain shipments to Rome and for Imperial Army expeditions.

Baroque painting of the Battle of Actium by Laureys a Castro, 1672 (Maritime Museum of Greenwich, UK).

Lighter ships were far better suited to these tasks, and after the reorganization of the Fleet following Actium, the largest ship kept in service was a hexareme, the flagship of the Classis Misenensis. The bulk of the Fleets was composed of the lighter triremes and liburnians.

In addition, there were smaller oared vessels, such as the navis actuaria, with 30 oars (15 on each bank), a ship primarily used for transport in coastal and fluvial operations, for which its shallow draught and flat keel were ideal. In late Antiquity, it was succeeded in this role by the navis lusoria (playful ship), which was extensively used for patrols and raids by the Legionary Flotillas in the Rhine and Danube frontiers.

Roman ships were commonly named after gods (MarsJupiter, MinervaIsis), mythological heroes (Hercules), geographical maritime features such as Rhenus or Oceanus, concepts such as Harmony, Peace, Loyalty, Victory (Concordia, Pax, Fides, Victoria) or after important events (Dacicus for the Trajan’s Dacian Wars or Salamina for the Battle of Salamis).

Bronze figurehead from Roman ship, circa 1st Century BC-1st Century AD.

They were initially distinguished by their figurehead (insigne or parasemum). During the Civil Wars at least, they were identified by the paint schemes on their turrets, which varied according to each fleet.

In Classical Antiquity, a ship’s main weapon was the ram (rostra), which was used to sink or immobilize an enemy ship by punching a hole in its hull. Use of a rostra, though, required a skilled and experienced crew and a fast and agile ship like a trireme or quinquereme.

In the Hellenistic period, the larger navies came instead to rely on greater vessels. This heavier and sturdier construction lessened the effects of ramming, but also allowed for the placement of deck-mounted ballistae and catapults.

Romans using the corvus

Being initially inexperienced at sea combat, the Romans relied upon boarding actions through the use of the corvus. Its use was cut short, however, because it tended to unbalance the quinqueremes in high seas.

During the Civil Wars, a number of technical innovations attributed to Agrippa took place. The most significant were the harpax, a catapult-fired grappling hook used to reel in an enemy ship like a fish, and the use of collapsible fighting towers placed one apiece bow and stern, which were used to provide the boarders with supporting fire.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Rome’s 1st simultaneous General and Admiral.

During the Republic, command of a fleet was given to a serving Magistratu (Magistrate) or Pro Magistratu (Promagistrate) of either Consular or
Praetorian rank. In the Punic Wars for instance, one Consul would usually command the Fleet, and another the Army.

In the subsequent wars in the Eastern Mediterranean, Praetors would assume the command of the Fleet. However, since these men were political appointees, the actual handling of the fleets and of separate squadrons was entrusted to their more experienced Legati (Legates) and subordinates.

It was therefore during the Punic Wars that the separate position of Praefectus Classis (Fleet Prefect) originally appeared. At first subordinate to the Magistrate in command, after the Fleet’s reorganization by Augustus, the Praefectus Classis became a Procurator in charge of each of the permanent Fleets.

These posts were initially filled either from among the Equestrian class, or, especially under Claudius, from the Emperor‘s freedmen, thus securing Imperial control over the Fleets. From the period of the Flavian Emperors, the status of the Praefectura was raised, and only Equestrians with military experience who had gone through the Militia Equestri were appointed.

Nevertheless, the Prefects remained largely political appointees, and despite their military experience, usually in command of Auxilia (Auxiliary Units), their knowledge of naval matters was minimal, forcing them to rely on their professional subordinates. The difference in importance of the Fleets they commanded was also reflected by the rank and the corresponding pay of the commanders.

A sestertius of Nero, struck at Rome in 64 AD.

The Prefects of the 2 Praetorian Fleets were ranked Procuratores Ducenarii, meaning they earned 200,000 sesterces annually, the Prefects of the Classis Germanica, the Classis Britannica and later the Classis Pontica were centenarii (earning 100,000 sesterces), while the other Fleet Prefects were sexagenarii (earning 60,000 sesterces).

The bulk of a galley’s crew was formed by the Remiges (Rowers). Despite popular perceptions, the Roman Fleet, and ancient fleets in general, relied throughout their existence on Rowers of free status, and not on galley slaves.

Slaves were employed only in times of pressing manpower demands or extreme emergency, and even then, they were freed first. In Imperial times, non-citizen freeborn Provincials (Peregrini), chiefly from nations with a maritime background such as Greeks, Phoenicians, Syrians and Egyptians, formed the bulk of the Fleets’ crews.

During the early Principate a ship’s crew, regardless of its size, was organized as a Centuria. Crewmen could sign on as Marines (Marinus), Rowers/Seamen, Craftsmen and various other jobs, though all personnel serving in the Imperial Fleet were classed as Milites (Soldiers), regardless of their function.

Naval personnel were considered to hold a lower social status, considered inferior to the Auxilia and the Legionaries. Emperor Claudius originally gave legal privileges to the Navy’s Crewmen, enabling them to receive Roman citizenship after their period of service.

This period was initially set at a minimum of 26 years (1 year more than the Legions), and was later expanded to 28. Upon honorable discharge (honesta missio), the Sailors received a sizable cash payment as well.

Roman Naval Centurion, note this Marine is armed just like his land-based counterpart.

As in the Army, the ship’s Centuria was headed by a Centurion with an Optio as his deputy, while a Beneficiarius supervised a small administrative staff. Among the crew were also a number of Principales (Junior Officers) and Immunes (specialists exempt from certain duties).

An inscription from the island of Cos, dated to the First Mithridatic War, provides us with a list of a ship’s officers (Nautae): the Gubernator (helmsman or pilot), the Celeusta (Rower Supervisor), a Proreta (Look-Out stationed at the bow), a Pentacontarchos (Junior Officer), and an Iatros (Ship’s Doctor).

Each ship was commanded by a Trierarchus, whose exact relationship with the ship’s Centurion remains unclear. Squadrons, most likely of 10 ships each, were put under a Nauarchus, who often appears to have risen from the ranks of the Trierarchi. The post of Nauarchus Archigubernes or Nauarchus Princeps appeared later in the Imperial period, and functioned either as Commander of several squadrons or as an Executive Officer under a Civilian Admiral, equivalent to the Legionary Primus Pilus.

Until the reign of Antoninus Pius, all careers of these Officers were restricted to the Fleet. Only in the 3rd Century were these Officers equated to the Legionary Centurions in status and pay, and from this time forth could be transferred to a similar position in the Legions.

Naval operations on the Rhine (357 AD).

After the end of the Civil Wars, Augustus (formerly Octavius) reduced and reorganized the Roman Military, including the Navy. A large part of the Fleet of Mark Antony was burned, and the rest was withdrawn to a new base at Forum Iulii (modern Fréjus), which remained operative until the reign of Claudius.

However, the bulk of the Fleet was soon subdivided into 2 Praetorian Fleets at Misenum and Ravenna, supplemented by a growing number of minor ones in the provinces, which were often created on an ad hoc basis for specific campaigns. This organizational structure was maintained almost unchanged until the 4th Century.

Roman Bireme with a tower on the front.

We hope you enjoyed today’s voyage and look forward to having you back again soon. There’s lots more about the Roman Navy to discuss, but who knows where or what we’ll experience next?

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

 

References:

Casson, Lionel. The Ancient Mariners: Seafarers and Sea Fighters of the Mediterranean in Ancient Times. Princeton University Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0-691-01477-7.

Casson, Lionel. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-8018-5130-0.

Cleere, Henry. “The Classis Britannica”CBA, 1977.

Connolly, Peter. Greece and Rome at War. Greenhill, 1998.

Gardiner, Robert. AGE OF THE GALLEY: Mediterranean Oared Vessels since pre-Classical Times. Conway Maritime Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-85177-955-3.

Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Fall of Carthage: The Punic Wars 265–146 BC. Cassell, 2000. ISBN 0-304-36642-0.

Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Complete Roman Army. Thames & Hudson Ltd., 2003. ISBN 0-500-05124-0.

Goldsworthy, Adrian. “A Roman Alexander: Pompey the Great“. In the name of Rome: The men who won the Roman Empire. Phoenix, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7538-1789-6.

Gruen, Erich S. The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome: Volume IIUniversity of California Press, 1984. ISBN 0-520-04569-6.

Lewis, Archibald Ross; Runyan, Timothy J. European Naval and Maritime History, 300-1500. Indiana University Press, 1985. ISBN 0-253-20573-5,

MacGeorge, Penny. “Appendix: Naval Power in the Fifth Century”. Late Roman WarlordsOxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-925244-2.

Meijer, Fik. A History of Seafaring in the Classical World. Routledge, 1986. ISBN 978-0-7099-3565-0.

Potter, David. “The Roman Army and Navy”. The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic. Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-521-00390-2.

Rodgers, William L. Naval Warfare Under Oars, 4th to 16th Centuries: A Study of Strategy, Tactics and Ship Design. Naval Institute Press, 1967. ISBN 978-0-87021-487-5.

Saddington, D.B. “Classes. The Evolution of the Roman Imperial Fleets”. A Companion to the Roman ArmyBlackwell Publishing Ltd., 2007. ISBN 978-1-4051-2153-8.

Starr, Chester G. The Roman Imperial Navy: 31 BC-AD 324 (2nd Edition). Cornell University Press, 1960.

Starr, Chester G. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. Oxford University Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-19-505667-9.

Treadgold, Warren T. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.

Warry, John. Warfare in the Classical World. Salamander Books Ltd., 2004. ISBN 0-8061-2794-5.

Webster, Graham; Elton, Hugh. The Roman Imperial Army of the First and Second Centuries AD. University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8061-3000-8.

Workman-Davies, Bradley. Corvus: A Review of the Design and Use of the Roman Boarding Bridge During the First Punic War 264 -241 BC. Lulu.com, 2006. ISBN 978-1-84728-882-0.

The Roman Fleet, Roman-Empire.net

The Roman Navy: Masters of the Mediterranean, HistoryNet.com

Port of Claudius, the museum of Roman merchant ships found in Fiumicino (Rome)

Making It Happen: The Military of Ancient Rome – Part II

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

If this is your initial visit with us, thanks for stopping by. If you are back for further adventures with us, then you’re in for a treat.

For those not aware, the growth of Ancient Rome was put onto the backs of its soldiers. Last week we pulled on our caligae (military boots) and grabbed our gladiī (swords) as we joined the Exercitus Romanus (Roman Army) in Making It Happen: The Military of Ancient Rome – Part I.

Today we are journeying back to when, and where, it all went down as we continue with how the Military of Ancient Rome made it all happen!

Reenacters portraying the Roman Legionaries of Legio XV Apollinaris.

The Roman Military was keen on the doctrine of power projection. It frequently removed foreign rulers by force or intimidation and replaced them with puppets.

This was facilitated by the maintenance, for at least part of its history, of a series of client states and other subjugate and buffer entities beyond its official borders, although over which Rome extended massive political and military control. On the other hand, this also could mean the payment of immense subsidies to foreign powers and opened the possibility of extortion in case military means were insufficient.

Showing the vast amount of land held by the Roman Empire (c. 125 AD).

The Empire’s system of building an extensive and well-maintained network of Viae (Roman Roads), as well as its absolute command of the Mediterranean for much of its history, enabled a primitive form of rapid reaction, also stressed in modern military doctrine. Since there was no real strategic reserve, this often entailed the raising of fresh troops or the withdrawing of troops from other parts of the border.

The Roman Military had an extensive logistical supply chain. There was no specialized branch devoted to logistics and transportation, although this was to a great extent carried out by the Roman Navy due to the ease and low costs of transporting goods via sea and river compared to over land. There is archaeological evidence that Roman Armies campaigning in Germania were supplied by a logistical supply chain beginning in Italy and Gaul, then transported by sea to the northern coast of Germania, and finally penetrating into Germania via barges on inland waterways.

Forces were routinely supplied via fixed supply chains, and although Roman Armies in enemy territory would often supplement or replace this by foraging for food or purchasing food locally, this was often insufficient for their needs. For instance, a single Legio (Legion) would have required 13.5 tons of food per month, which would have proved impossible to source locally.

For the most part, Roman cities had a Civil Guard used for maintaining the peace. Due to fear of rebellions and other uprisings, the guards were forbidden to be armed at militia levels.

Roman Cavalry from a mosaic of the Villa Romana del Casale, Sicily (4th Century AD).

Policing was split between the Civil Guard for low-level affairs and the Roman Legions and Auxilia for quelling higher-level rioting and rebellion. This Civil Guard created a limited strategic reserve, but fared poorly in actual warfare.

Literacy was highly valued in the Roman Military, thus literacy rates in the military far exceeded that of the Roman society as a whole. Being able to read, led to creativity, which made the military engineering of Ancient Rome‘s armed forces was of a scale and frequency far beyond that of any of its contemporaries.

Indeed, military engineering was in many ways institutionally widespread in Roman military culture, as demonstrated by the fact that each Legionarius (Legionary) had as part of his equipment a shovel, alongside his gladius and pila (spears).

This engineering prowess was, however, only evident during the peak of Roman military prowess from the mid-Republic to the mid-Empire. Prior to the mid-Republic period there is little evidence of protracted or exceptional military engineering, and in the late Empire likewise there is little sign of the kind of engineering feats that were regularly carried out in the earlier Empire.

Roman military engineering took both routine and extraordinary forms, the former a proactive part of standard military procedure, and the latter of an extraordinary or reactionary nature. To make this happen, soldiers learned to build, and build quickly, as a standard element of training.

The massive earthen ramp at Masada, designed by the Roman army to breach the fortress’ walls.

Proactive military engineering took the form of the regular construction of Castra (Fortified Camps), in road-building, and in the construction of siege engines. The knowledge and experience learned through such routine engineering lent itself readily to any extraordinary engineering projects required by the Army, such as the circumvallations constructed at Alesia and the earthen ramp constructed at Masada.

This engineering expertise practiced in daily routines also served in the construction of siege equipment such as ballistaeonagers and siege towers, as well as allowing the troops to construct roads, bridges and fortified camps. All of these led to strategic capabilities, allowing Roman troops to, respectively, assault besieged settlements, move more rapidly to wherever they were needed, cross rivers to reduce march times and surprise enemies, and to camp in relative security even in enemy territory.

Rome was established as a nation by making aggressive use of its high military potential. From very early on in its history, Rome would raise 2 forces annually to campaign abroad.

The Roman Military was far from being solely a defense force. For much of its history, it was a tool of aggressive expansion.

The evolution of the Roman Legionary.

The Roman Army had derived from a militia of mainly farmers, and the gain of new farm lands for the growing population or later retiring soldiers was often a chief objective for a campaign. Only in the late Empire did the preservation of control over Rome’s territories become the Roman Military’s primary role.

The remaining major powers confronting Rome were the Kingdom of AksumParthia and the Hunnic Empire. Knowledge of China, the Han Dynasty at the times of Mani, existed and it is believed that Rome and China swapped embassies about 170 AD.

In its purest form, the concept of strategy deals solely with military issues. Up to half of the funds raised by the Roman State were spent on its Military, and the Romans displayed a strategy that was clearly more complicated than simple knee-jerk strategic or tactical responses to individual threats.

Roman soldiers battling barbarian troops on the Ludovisi Battle sarcophagus (250-260).

Rome’s strategy changed over time, implementing different systems to meet different challenges that reflected changing internal priorities. Elements of Rome’s strategy included the use of client states, the deterrent of armed response in parallel with manipulative diplomacy, and a fixed system of troop deployments and road networks.

When in doubt, Rome would rely on brute force and sheer numbers. Soldiers were trained to memorize every step in battle, so discipline and order could not break down into chaos, thus leading to lots of successful Roman outcomes.

Although Roman iron-working was enhanced by a process known as carburization, the Romans were not thought to have developed true steel production. From the earliest history of the Roman State to its downfall, Roman arms were uniformly produced from either bronze or iron.

As a result, the 1300 years of Roman military technology saw little radical change in technological level. Within the bounds of classical military technology, however, Roman arms & armor was developed, discarded, and adopted from other peoples based on changing methods of engagement.

Typical weapons carried by the Legions of Rome.

It included at various times stabbing daggers and swords, stabbing or thrusting swords, long thrusting spears or pikes, lances, light throwing javelins and darts, slings, and bow and arrows. Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way, so it varied little in design and quality within each historical period.

Roman arms & armor gave them an advantage over their barbarian enemies who were often, as Germanic tribesmen, completely unarmored. However, whilst the uniform possession of armor gave Rome an advantage, the actual standard of each item of Roman equipment was of no better quality than that used by the majority of its enemies.

The relatively low quality of Roman weaponry was primarily a function of its large-scale production. Later factors, such as governmental price fixing for certain items, gave no allowance for quality and incentivized cheap, poor-quality goods.

The Roman Military readily adopted types of arms and armor that were effectively used against them by their enemies. Initially Roman troops were armed after Greek and Etruscan models, using large oval shields and long pikes.

On encountering the Celts they adopted much Celtic equipment and again later adopted items such as the gladius from Iberian peoples. Later in Rome’s history, it adopted practices such as arming its Cavalry with bows in the Parthian style, and even experimented briefly with niche weaponry such as elephants and camel-troops.

Bas relief of a Roman Ballista Roman on Trajan’s Column.

Besides personal weaponry, the Roman Military adopted team weaponry. Items such as the Ballista and the naval corvus, a spiked plank used for affixing and boarding enemy ships, used multiple troops to achieve a singular goal.

The expansion of the Roman Empire was achieved through military force in nearly every case. Roman culture as a whole revolved around its Military for both expansion and protection.

Geographic areas on the outskirts of the Empire were prone to attack and required heavy military presence. The constant barrage of attacks and the increase of expansion caused several casualties.

Augustus Caesar

Due to attack there was a need for specialized medical care for these soldiers, in order to keep them in operational status. The specialized form of care, however, was not created until the time of Augustus (31BC-14AD).

Prior to this there is little information about the care of soldiers. It is assumed soldiers were self-reliant, treating their own wounds and caring for other ailments encountered.

They would also turn to civilians for help throughout the villages they would come across. This was considered a custom of the time, and was quite common for households to take in wounded soldiers and tend to them.

As time progressed, there was an increase in care for the wounded as hospitals appeared. The idea was held by the Romans that a healed soldier was better than a dead one and a healed veteran was better than a new recruit.

With the need for soldier health a growing concern, places for the sick to go in the Army were starting to show up. Dates ranged from AD 9 to AD 50, but this is when initial evidence of hospitals was seen in archaeological remains.

General set up of Ancient Roman Military Hospital at Novaesium (near Dusseldorft, Germany).

These hospitals were specific places for only military members to go to if they were injured or fell ill, a similar situation was used for slaves. Military hospitals were permanent structures set up in forts, with clear patient rooms designed to accommodate a large numbers of soldiers.

The size of these hospitals varied based on their location. Some of the large facilities, such as the hospital in Hod Hill England, could accommodate roughly 12% of the force within the hospital.

In more stable areas such as Inchtuthil in Scotland, there was room for as little as 2% of the force within the hospital. Areas with more conflict obviously had larger medical facilities as they saw more casualties.

These hospitals were solely designed for the use of the military. If a civilian fell ill or needed surgery they would likely go to the physician’s home and stay, not a hospital.

Establishing field hospitals during battle.

Prior to these permanent structures there were tents set up as mobile field hospitals. Soldiers suffering from severe wounds were brought to a field hospital for treatment, as the structures were assembled and disassembled as the Army moved.

Doctors serving in the Army were considered to be a member of the Roman Military. Just like everyone else, Army Physicians would take the military oath and be bound by the military law.

They would also start among the lower fighting ranks. Even though they took the military oath and were among the lower ranks, it did not mean they would be fighting among the masses.

These doctors were not always professionals or career physicians. Oftentimes they were slaves who were forced into that career.

The Medici was also a group that treated wounded soldiers on the battlefield. These men were not trained physicians even though they played the role of one.

Roman surgical instruments found at Pompeii (Museo di_Napoli).

Typically they were soldiers who demonstrated they had knowledge in wound treatment and even simple surgical techniques. These men were used before the actual trained doctors were largely implemented.

Physicians got their knowledge from experience and information being passed down from person to person. Likely Physicians never used medical texts, as it was not common place even in the civilian field to do so.

Generals and Emperors were exceptions, as they would typically have their own personal physician with them. This was a common occurrence as Emperors such as Julian employed famous physicians such as Galen.

By the time of Trajan (53AD-117AD), the Medical Corps was well on the way to being an organized machine. At this time, Physicians were attached to nearly every Army and Navy Unit in all the Roman Military.

Mural of a Roman soldier removing an arrow from a fellow soldier’s leg with a pair of pinchers.

By this time the Army was massive, consisting of 25 to 30 Legions, each of which contained nearly 6,000 men. Each Legio included both soldiers and physicians.

At this point all physicians were either self-taught or learned their trade through an apprenticeship. Despite this, there was an attempt at organization, as the Army did have a medical manual that was passed out to its Physicians.

The Medici were used on both the front line as emergency care providers and in the rear as the main physicians. The Capsarii were mainly used as the front line care providers and bandagers, but also assisted the Medici behind the lines.

Romans received their medical knowledge largely from the Greeks that came before them. As Rome started to expand, it slowly embraced the Greek culture, causing an influx of medicinal information in Roman society.

This influx of medicinal information allowed knowledge to become the foundation of all western medical tradition. The Greek theories were kept alive and their practices continued well into the future.

Showing where various Roman Legions were stationed (212 AD).

This knowledge was also the foundation used in the military medicine since it contained the overarching ideas of their medical knowledge. As time progressed these medical texts would be translated into Arabic and then back into Latin as the flow of information changed.

We can presume that some of the information in these texts has been lost in translation. Despite this, we are still able to illustrate a clear picture of what military medicine was like during the reign of the Roman Empire.

As is the case with any large number of people being in close quarters, there was a constant threat of disease. When one individual in a large group gets sick with a communicable disease, it spreads to others very quickly.

This premise remains true even today in the modern military. The Romans recognized the difference between disease and wounds, each requiring separate treatment.

Drainage of excess water and waste were common practices in camps as well as the later, permanent medical structures. As the medical corps grew in size there was also specialization evolving.

Physicians surfaced that specialized in disease, surgery, wound dressing and even veterinary medicine. Veterinary physicians were there to tend to livestock for agricultural purposes as well as combat purposes.

Parade of Ancient Roman Cavalry on the column of Antoninus Pius (Rome, Italy).

The Cavalry was known for their use of horses in combat and scouting purposes. Because of the type of injuries that would have been commonly seen, surgery was a somewhat common occurrence.

Tools such as scissors, knives and arrow extractors have been found in remains of both human and animal alike. In fact, Roman surgery was quite intuitive, in contrast to common thought of ancient surgery.

The Roman Military Surgeons used a cocktail of plants, which created a sedative similar to modern anesthesia. Written documentation also showed Surgeons would use oxidation from metal such as copper and scrape it into wounds, which provided an antibacterial.

Doctors had the knowledge to clean their surgical instruments with hot water after each use. Wounds were dressed, and dead tissue was removed when bandages were changed.

Honey and cobwebs were items used to cover wounds, and have even been shown today to increase healing. Most major advancements in knowledge and technique came from military medicine rather than civil practice.

Roman Soldier marching pack

Diet was an issue that is often discussed as an aspect of medical care. Since our idea of modern technology did not exist, diet was a simple way for Romans to attain a healthy life.

This was true in the Roman Military as the soldiers required appropriate nutrition in order to function at high activity levels. There were often unique circumstances in attempting the acquisition of food for everyone.

During a campaign the soldiers would often forage food from their enemies land. In fact as part of the standard kit, Roman soldiers would carry a sickle, which would be used to forage food.

They would carry a 3-day ration of food in case they were in a situation where foraging was not available. A typical Roman Army diet consisted of items such as wheat, barley, bacon, cheese, vegetables, and sour wine to drink.

The soldier was given a ration, which was taken from his pay, and were well fed in times of peace. If the soldiers were well fed, they were healthier and able to maintain a high level of physical activity, as well as stave off disease.

Roman Soldiers on the offensive end of a siege.

Disease is still something that is easier to prevent rather than treat. This idea holds true in the event a fort was under siege, where certain food items were rationed.

Poultry was a rationed item since it was very inexpensive to maintain and, in the event of a siege, it did not require a lot of resources to maintain. It was also noted that poultry had benefits for those who were sick.

This demonstrates the idea was present that the Army needed to maintain the health of its members regardless of happenings. These discoveries were made while looking at the remains of Roman Military sites.

From the excavation of Trimontium Fort.

By excavating these sites and looking at fecal matter found, scientists were able to determine what was eaten. The variety of food found shows the Romans were not focused on just caloric intake, as they knew a variety of food was important to health and their combat readiness.

We appreciate you stopping by today. Hopefully you enjoyed today’s adventure and will come back again soon.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

 

References:

Connolly, PeterGreece and Rome at War. Greenhill Books, 1998. ISBN 978-1-85367-303-0.

Fox, Robin LaneThe Classical WorldPenguin Books, 2005. ISBN 0-14-102141-1.

Gibbon, EdwardThe Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Penguin Books, 1985. ISBN 0-14-043189-6.

Goldsworthy, AdrianIn the Name of Rome: The Men Who Won the Roman Empire. Weidenfield and Nicholson, 2003. ISBN 0-297-84666-3.

Grant, MichaelThe History of RomeFaber and Faber, 1993. ISBN 0-571-11461-X.

Heather, PeterThe Fall of the Roman Empire: A New HistoryMacmillan Publishers, 2005. ISBN 0-330-49136-9.

Jones, Arnold Hugh MartinThe Later Roman EmpireJohns Hopkins University Press, 1964. ISBN 0-8018-3285-3.

Livy. The Rise of Rome. Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-282296-9.

Luttwak, EdwardThe Grand Strategy of the Roman EmpireJohns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-2158-4.

Matyszak, PhilipThe Enemies of RomeThames and Hudson, 2004. ISBN 0-500-25124-X.

PolybiusThe Rise of the Roman Empire (Translation by W. R. Paton). Harvard University Press, 1927.

Santosuosso, AntonioStorming the Heavens: Soldiers, Emperors and Civilians in the Roman Empire. Westview Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8133-3523-X.

TacitusThe Annals.

Making It Happen: The Military of Ancient Rome – Part I

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

If this is your initial visit with us, thanks for stopping by. If you are back for further adventures with us, then you’re in for a treat.

It’s time to put on your caligae (military boots) and grab your glădĭus (sword) for we are joining the Exercitus Romanus (Roman Army). For those not aware, the growth of Ancient Rome was put onto the backs of its soldiers.

Today we are journeying back to when, and where, it all began as we see how the Military of Ancient Rome made it all happen!

The Backbone of the Roman Empire

According to Caesar Medina, an illustrious historian of Rome over the centuries, the Military of Ancient Rome was a key element in the rise of Rome over 700 years. Growing from a small settlement in Latium on the Mediterranean, Rome became the capital of an Empire governing a wide region around the shores of what the Romans called mare nostrum (our sea).

Livy asserts:

… if any people ought to be allowed to consecrate their origins and refer them to a divine source, so great is the military glory of the Roman People that when they profess that their Father and the Father of their Founder was none other than Mars, the nations of the earth may well submit to this also with as good a grace as they submit to Rome’s dominion.

1st Century Roman portrait bust said to be of Josephus (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek – Copenhagen, Denmark).

Titus Flavius Josephus, a contemporary historian, sometime high-ranking officer in the Roman Army, and commander of the rebels in the Jewish revolt, describes the Roman people as if they were born already armed. At the time of these historians, Roman society had already evolved an effective military and had used it to defend itself against the Etruscans, the Italics, the Greeks, the Gauls, the maritime empire of Carthage, and the Macedonian kingdoms.

In each war, Rome kept on acquiring more territory. When the Final War of the Roman Republic ended the Res Publica Romana (Roman Republic), nothing was left for the original Emperor, Augustus, to do except declare it an Empire and defend it.

The role and structure of Rome’s Military was then altered during the Empire. It became less Roman, with the duties of border protection and territorial administration being more and more taken by foreign mercenaries with Roman Officers.

SPQR insignia

During the Roman Republic the function of the Military was defined as service to the Senatus Populusque Romanus, an agency designated by SPQR on public inscriptions. Its main body was the Senatus Romanus (Roman Senate), which met in a building still extant in the Forum Romanum (Roman Forum).

Its decrees were handed off to the pair of Chief Officers of the State, the Consules (Consuls). They could levy from the citizens whatever military force they judged was necessary to execute the decree, and often did this by a draft of male citizens assembled by age class.

A modern look at Ancient Roman Officers.

The Officers of the Legion were tasked with selecting men for the ranks. The will of the SPQR was binding on the Consuls and the men, with the death penalty (typically by crucifixion) often assigned for disobedience or failure.

The consular duties were of any type whatever: military defense, police work, public hygiene, assistance in civil disaster, health work, agriculture, and especially construction of public roads, bridges, aqueducts, buildings, and the maintenance of such. The soldiers were kept busy doing whatever service needed to be done: soldiering, manning vessels, carpentry, blacksmithing, clerking, etc.

The men were trained as required but any previous skills, such as a trade, were exploited. They were brought to the task and were protected by the authority of the state.

Location of Roman Legions camps (AD 80).

The Military’s campaign history stretched over 1300 years and saw Roman Armies campaigning as far east as Parthia (modern-day Iran), as far south as Africa (modern-day Tunisia) and Aegyptus (modern-day Egypt), and as far north as Britannia (modern-day England, south Scotland, and Wales). The makeup of the Roman Military changed substantially over its history, from its early history as an unsalaried citizen militia to a later professional force, the Imperial Roman Army.

The equipment used by the military altered greatly in type over time, though there were very few technological improvements in weapons manufacture, in common with the rest of the classical world. For much of its history, the vast majority of Rome’s forces were maintained at or beyond the limits of its territory, in order to either expand Rome’s domain, or protect its existing borders.

Expansions were infrequent, as the Emperors, adopting a strategy of fixed lines of defense, had determined to maintain existing borders. For that purpose they constructed extensive walls and created permanent stations that became cities.

Hadrian’s Wall, a Roman boundary still standing today in Britain.

At its territorial height, the Roman Empire may have contained between 45 million and 120 million people. Historians have estimated that the size of the Roman Army was likely a standing force of 375,000 at the Empire’s territorial peak in the time of the Roman Emperor Hadrian (117 – 138 AD).

This estimate probably included only Legionarii (Legionary) and Auxiliaries (Auxiliary) troops of the Exercitus Romanus. In the late Imperial period, when vast numbers of Foederati were employed by the Romans, it’s been estimated the combined number of men in arms from the Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire numbered closer to 700,000 in total (not all members of a standing army), drawing on data from the Notitia Dignitatum.

Relief scene of Roman Legionaries marching, from the Column of Marcus Aurelius (Rome, Italy, 2nd Century AD).

Initially, Rome’s Military consisted of an annual citizen charge of performing military service as part of their duty to the State. During this period, the Roman Army would prosecute seasonal campaigns against largely local adversaries.

As the extent of the territories falling under Roman suzerainty expanded, and the size of the city’s forces increased, the soldiery of Ancient Rome became increasingly professional and salaried. As a consequence, military service at the lower (non-staff) levels became progressively longer-term.

Roman military units of the period were largely homogeneous and highly regulated. The Army consisted of units of Citizen Infantry known as Legions (Legiones) as well as non-legionary allied troops known as Auxilia to provide light infantry or cavalry support.

Roman Soldiers on the cast of Trajan’s Column (Victoria and Albert museum, London).

Military service in the later Empire continued to be salaried yearly and professionally for Rome’s regular troops. However, the trend of employing allied or mercenary troops was expanded such that these troops came to represent a substantial proportion of Rome’s forces.

At the same time, the uniformity of structure found in Rome’s earlier military forces disappeared. Soldiery of the era ranged from lightly armed mounted archers to heavy infantry, in regiments of varying size and quality, with an increasing predominance of cavalry rather than infantry troops in the late Empire.

In the Legions of the Republic, discipline was fierce and training was harsh. All of this was  intended to instill a group cohesion or (esprit de corps) that could bind the men together into effective fighting units.

The testudo formation in a Roman military reenactment.

Unlike opponents such as the Gauls, who were fierce individual warriors, Roman military training concentrated on instilling teamwork and maintaining a level head over individual bravery. Troops were to maintain exact formations in battle and skillfully use the sheltering of one’s shield, thus being able to deliver efficient stabs when an opponent made himself vulnerable (the testudo).

A modern reconstruction of an Aquila.

Loyalty was to the Roman State but pride was based in the Soldier’s Unit, to which was attached a military standard (most likely the Aquila or Eagle). Successful units, such as the 20th Legion which became the XX Valeria Victrix (Valiant and Victorious 20th), were awarded with accolades that became part of their official name.

Of the martial culture of less valued units such as sailors, and light infantry, less is known. It is doubtful that other training was as intense or its esprit de corps as strong as in the Legions.

Although early in its history troops were expected to provide much of their own equipment, eventually the Roman Military was almost entirely funded by the State. Since soldiers of the early Republican Armies were also unpaid citizens, the financial burden of the Army on the State was minimal.

However, since the Roman State did not provide services such as housing, health, education, social security and public transport that are part and parcel of modern states, the Military always represented by far the greatest expenditure of the State.

During the time of expansion in the Republic and early Empire, Roman Armies had acted as a source of revenue for the Roman State, plundering conquered territories, displaying the massive wealth in triumphus (triumphs) upon their return, and fueling the economy to the extent that historians believed the Roman economy was essentially a plunder economy.

Roman coins grew gradually more debased due to the demands placed on the treasury of the Roman State by the Military.

However, after the Empire had stopped expanding in the 2nd Century AD, this source of revenue dried up. By the end of the 3rd Century AD, Rome had ceased to vanquish.

As tax revenue was plagued by corruption and hyperinflation during the Crisis of the Third Century, military expenditures began to like the weight of the world upon the shoulders of Atlas on the finances of the Roman state. It now highlighted weaknesses that earlier expansion had disguised.

Several additional factors bloated the military expenditure of the Roman Empire. First, substantial rewards were paid to barbarian chieftains for their good conduct in the form of negotiated subsidies and for the provision of allied troops.

3rd Century Roman Cavalry

Secondly, the military boosted its numbers, possibly by 1/3 in a single century. Third, the military increasingly relied on a higher ratio of Equites Romani (Cavalry) units in the late Empire, which was much more expensive to maintain than Infantry units.

As military size and costs increased, new taxes were introduced or existing tax laws reformed in the late Empire to finance it. Even though there were more inhabitants available within the borders of the late Empire, reducing the per capita costs for an increased standing army was impractical.

A large number of the population could not be taxed because they were slaves or held Roman citizenship, both of which exempted them from taxation. Of the remaining people within the Empire, a large number were already impoverished by centuries of warfare and weakened by chronic malnutrition.

Still, they had to handle an increasing tax rate and so they often abandoned their lands to survive in a city. By 440 AD, Roman Law conditions that the State had insufficient tax revenue to fund an Army of a size required by the demands placed upon it.

Ancient Rome’s marching camps were a crucial part of every Roman offensive.

The military capability of Rome, its preparedness or readiness, was always primarily based upon the maintenance of an active fighting force acting either at or beyond its military frontiers. Because of these deployments, the Roman Military kept a central strategic reserve after the Social War.

We hope you enjoyed today’s adventure. We look forward to having you join us again as we conclude Rome’s military might with Part II.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

 

References:

Connolly, PeterGreece and Rome at War. Greenhill Books, 1998. ISBN 978-1-85367-303-0.

Fox, Robin LaneThe Classical WorldPenguin Books, 2005. ISBN 0-14-102141-1.

Gibbon, EdwardThe Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Penguin Books, 1985. ISBN 0-14-043189-6.

Goldsworthy, AdrianIn the Name of Rome: The Men Who Won the Roman Empire. Weidenfield and Nicholson, 2003. ISBN 0-297-84666-3.

Grant, MichaelThe History of RomeFaber and Faber, 1993. ISBN 0-571-11461-X.

Heather, PeterThe Fall of the Roman Empire: A New HistoryMacmillan Publishers, 2005. ISBN 0-330-49136-9.

Jones, Arnold Hugh MartinThe Later Roman EmpireJohns Hopkins University Press, 1964. ISBN 0-8018-3285-3.

Livy. The Rise of Rome. Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-282296-9.

Luttwak, EdwardThe Grand Strategy of the Roman EmpireJohns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-2158-4.

Matyszak, PhilipThe Enemies of RomeThames and Hudson, 2004. ISBN 0-500-25124-X.

PolybiusThe Rise of the Roman Empire (Translation by W. R. Paton). Harvard University Press, 1927.

Santosuosso, AntonioStorming the Heavens: Soldiers, Emperors and Civilians in the Roman Empire. Westview Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8133-3523-X.

TacitusThe Annals.

 

Roman War Tactics

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

If this is your initial visit to RAE, then be prepared to have your mind blown (at least that’s what the video tells us). We cover a lot of things, both past and present, that have a connection to the Ancient Rome and the Roman Empire.

Today we are in for a visual treat as we explore Roman War Tactics!

Roman war tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman Infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

For in depth background on the historical structure of the infantry relevant to this article, see Structure of the Roman military. For a history of Rome’s military campaigns see Campaign history of the Roman military. For detail on equipment, daily life and specific Legions see Roman Legion and Roman military personal equipment.

We hope you enjoyed today’s adventure and look forward to having you back again soon.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

THE ROMAN EMPIRE – THE AGE OF AUGUSTUS

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

If there’s something to do with Rome (City / Kingdom / Republic / Empire or otherwise) we are interested. People, places and events that impacted this history are also on our radar.

That is why today we journey through The Roman Empire – The Age of Augustus!

Augustus (full name in Latin: Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus) lived from 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD. He was the founder of the Roman Empire and its original Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian Octavii family. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar’s will as his adopted son and heir, then known as Octavianus (Anglicized as Octavian).

The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace). The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire’s frontiers and one year-long civil war over the imperial succession.

Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia. He also expanded possessions in AfricaGermania, and completed the conquest of Hispania.

When all is said and done, Augustus was a man who made things happen. Rome was a city built of brick and dirt, but he left it one of marble!

We hope you enjoyed today’s journey and look forward to having you back again soon. If you haven’t done so already, please be sure to check us out on Facebook and Twitter for extra content.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

ROME – RISE OF THE REPUBLIC

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If there’s something we love, it’s a good visual presentation about Roman history. Whether fictional or not, any television show or movie connecting us with Ancient Rome is a win.

That is why today we are taking a visual exploration of the Roman Republic!

The Res Publica Romana was the period of Ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome’s control expanded from the city’s immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.

During the initial 2 centuries of its existence, the Roman Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, from central Italy to the entire Italian peninsula. By the following century, it included North Africa, Spain, and what is now southern France.

Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st Century BC, it included the rest of modern France, Greece, and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, internal tensions led to a series of civil wars, culminating with the assassination of Julius Caesar, which led to the transition from Republic to Empire.

 

We hope you enjoyed today’s adventure and look forward to having you back again for more. Please check us out on Facebook and Twitter, and tell your friends about us.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!

Why the Roman Army was so Battle Effective

Welcome to Rome Across Europe!

If you have never been here before (thanks for stopping by) you would not realize how crazy we are about the Exercitus Romanus (Roman Army). If there’s an article or video for us to share with everyone, then we are on it.

That’s why today we bring to you the effectiveness of the Roman Army!

Much of the success of the Roman Amy can be attributed to the command structure. Though after the Marian Reforms the Army was much more organized and therefore more effective, the early Roman Republic Army was still organized legibly, not into hordes.

Another part of the Army’s tactics was to build a camp at the end of every day’s march. The afternoon saw the rapid construction of a Castra, and the night was reserved for rest from the day’s march and labor.

Much of the Roman Army’s success depended on coolness of temper. A Roman Soldier was kept from nervous strain as long as possible, so as to perform well under the intense stress of battle.

The existence of a camp contributed greatly to this serving as a fortified stronghold. If defeated in battle Soldiers would not have to retreat far and they would fight again the next day, if not the same day.

We hope you enjoyed today’s adventure and look forward to having you back again soon. Check us out again soon since we never know what will be waiting.

Till next time, Don’t Stop Rome-ing!